Nepal has been maintaining certificate criterion AFP surveillance since 2001. The surveillance scheme is sensitive plenty to notice polio cases too circulating derived poliovirus. Nepal was declared polio -free past times the Regional Certification Commission on 27 March 2014. Nepal adopted the strategies developed past times the WHO such equally active AFP surveillance, Routine Immunization, SIAs too Mop-up to accomplish the finish of Polio eradication. The CHD took Pb inward planning, delivering too managing the National Immunization Program including polio throughout the country. The community based interventions together alongside the national too international learning convey been accounted for this success inward the functional partnership too community based approaches.
Key Strategies for polio eradication
- Routine immunization: Routine immunization is the cornerstone of polio eradication. Uniform too 95% OPV3 routine coverage increases the immunity marker inward community too hence interrupts the circulation of WPV transmission. Hence, the access of routine immunization services should live expanded at grass-root level.
- Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA) – (National Immunization Days & Sub National Immunization Days) National Immunization Days aiming to ameliorate universal coverage should live conducted on regular basis. It is an additional national or subnational volume vaccination crusade designed to vaccinate all children nether 5 which helps inward intermission of transmission of wild poliovirus. It aims to vaccinate everyone nether five, regardless of their previous immunization status.
- Surveillance of astute flaccid paralysis (AFP) – All AFP cases (suspected polio) are detected, reported too investigated. This allows for the identification of whatever remaining reservoirs of wild polio virus too helps inward the conclusion making for the SIAs need.
- Mop-up campaigns – These are intensive, solid to solid campaigns that are conducted during the lastly phase of polio eradication. Mop upward is conducted when the polio virus is confined inward a express geographical area, where all children are tracked too vaccinated reaching each solid hold, fifty-fifty subsequently successful implementation of NIDs too routine immunization.
- Introduction Of The Injectable Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) IPV is beingness introduced inward Nepal inward lodge to speedily maximize childhood immunity to polio too maintain the country’s polio-free status. IPV has been proven an extremely prophylactic too effective vaccine too has been used successfully inward many developed countries for several decades. It is of import to Federal Reserve annotation that IPV is recommended inward improver to the oral vaccine too does non supervene upon the oral vaccine. (UNICEF)
Historical Development inward Polio Eradication
Polio Eradication Initiative inward Nepal was begun inward 1996 through EWARS too it was constituent of global efforts of the World Health Organization to accomplish the globe gratuitous of polio. With vigorous attempts backed past times appropriate too effective policy measures, Nepal has been able to brand the dry reason gratuitous from this crippling illness equally no novel polio cases convey been reported inward the dry reason for to a greater extent than than iii years. The national polio immunization crusade has been carried out so effectively that every kid upward to 5 years is successfully administered polio drops. As a result, the dry reason is right away proudly able to stand upward equally a polio-free country, which is a thing of satisfaction to all of us. The efforts of the regime too back upward of the donors equally good organizations similar WHO, UNICEF too the Rotary International convey yielded positive results.
- In 1980, the regime of Nepal included polio vaccination inward regular immunization programme
- In 1996, Nepal initiated polio eradication efforts past times asset the starting fourth dimension National Immunization Days inward all 75 districts. The starting fourth dimension NID had been started from Kathmandu.
- In July 1998, the regime established an expanded nationwide Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance. Since then, 32 polio infection cases convey been detected. Among them xxx were from Terai region
- Two cases were reported from loma districts ( Bajura too Dailekh) Nepal borders alongside the endemic states of Republic of Republic of India has e’er been a threat for imported polio virus. Nepal has been continuously observing national immunization days every twelvemonth inward 2 rounds to halt indigenous or importation of WPV.
- Nepal laid upward the target of becoming polio gratuitous past times 2000. No polio virus was detected inward 2001, 2002, 2003 too 2004.
- The virus resurfaced inward 2005, 2006, 2007 too 2008 (average 4- 6 cases). xx cases were reported due to cross-border transmission.
- No polio illustration was reported inward 2009 but 6 cases were detected inward 2010 (one WPV1 reported from Mahottari district followed past times 5 WPV1 inward Rautahat district).The item investigation revealed that starting fourth dimension illustration of Mahottari was importation from Bihar.
- No novel polio illustration has been reported since so (30 August 2010). The lastly nation-wide polio drib crusade inward Dec 2013 was able to accomplish over xc per cent coverage. Door-to-door polio drib was administered to ensure that no kid nether 5 years of historic menstruum was left out from the drive against polio.
PROGRESS OF POLIO ERADICATION IN NEPAL Child Health Division/ Department of Health Services (DoHS) Ministry of Health too Population (MoHP) Kathmandu, Nepal